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This applies importantly to molecules related to neurotransmitter production and metabolism, but applies likewise in many other directions chemoarchitecture, or chemical neuroanatomy.
Immunocytochemistry is a special case of histochemistry that uses selective antibodies against a variety of chemical epitopes of the nervous system to selectively stain particular cell types, axonal fascicles, neuropiles, glial processes or blood vessels, or specific intracytoplasmic or intranuclear proteins and other immunogenetic molecules, e.g., neurotransmitters.
The first known written record of a study of the anatomy of the human brain is the ancient Egyptian document the Edwin Smith Papyrus.
The next major development in neuroanatomy came from the Greek Alcmaeon, who determined that the brain and not the heart ruled the body and that the senses were dependent on the brain.
Again in this case, the situation is different for swimming, creeping or quadrupedal (prone) animals than for Man, or other erect species, due to the changed position of the axis.
A mid-sagittal plane divides the body and brain into left and right halves; sagittal sections in general are parallel to this median plane, moving along the medial-lateral dimension(see the image above).
This article discusses information pertinent to the study of neuroanatomy.
The brain is small and simple in some species, such as the nematode worm, where the body plan is quite simple: a tube with a hollow gut cavity running from the mouth to the anus, and a nerve cord with an enlargement (a ganglion) for each body segment, with an especially large ganglion at the front, called the brain.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied because of its importance in genetics.
In the early 1970s, Sydney Brenner chose it as a model system for studying the way that genes control development, including neuronal development.
One advantage of working with this worm is that the nervous system of the hermaphrodite contains exactly 302 neurons, always in the same places, making identical synaptic connections in every worm.